Teres Minor Trigger Points: Understanding, Managing, and Alleviating Shoulder Pain


Teres minor trigger points can be an often underdiagnosed cause of chronic shoulder pain and discomfort. Imagine regaining control over persistent shoulder pain that impacts your daily activities, ultimately achieving a pain-free life. One condition that often goes unnoticed is teres minor trigger points. In this informative article, you’ll learn about the anatomy of this muscle, the specific pain pattern associated with teres minor trigger points, comparisons with other shoulder muscles, and practical stretching, rehab exercises, and self-myofascial release techniques to help manage and alleviate the pain. Equip yourself with the knowledge and tools needed to address discomfort and improve mobility in your shoulder.

Anatomy of the Teres Minor Muscle

teres minor trigger points

The teres minor muscle is one of the four muscles that comprise the rotator cuff, a group of muscles and tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint. The other three muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. The teres minor muscle is situated in the upper back, originating from the lateral border of the scapula (shoulder blade) and inserting into the greater tubercle of the humerus (the upper arm bone). Its primary function is to externally rotate and stabilize the humerus during arm movements.

Pain Pattern for Teres Minor Trigger Points

A trigger point is a hyperirritable spot within a muscle, characterized by a tight band of muscle fibers, and can cause localized or referred pain. When the teres minor muscle develops trigger points, you may experience pain that radiates from the back of the shoulder to the lateral (outer) aspect of the arm, sometimes extending down to the forearm and hand. This pain pattern is typically intensified during activities that involve lifting, reaching overhead, or external rotation of the arm.

In some cases, teres minor trigger points can contribute to a condition called “shoulder impingement syndrome.” This syndrome occurs when the rotator cuff tendons and the subacromial bursa (a fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between tendons and bones) become compressed or impinged within the subacromial space, leading to inflammation, pain, and restricted movement of the shoulder.

Causes of Teres Minor Trigger Points

Teres minor trigger points can develop due to various factors that contribute to muscle strain, tightness, or imbalance. Some common causes include:

  1. Poor posture: Slouching, rounded shoulders, and forward head posture can lead to muscle imbalances and strain on the teres minor muscle, increasing the likelihood of developing trigger points.
  2. Overuse: Repetitive movements, especially those involving overhead activities, external rotation, or prolonged static positions, can strain the teres minor muscle and cause trigger points to form.
  3. Muscle weakness or imbalances: Weakness or imbalances in the rotator cuff muscles, including the teres minor, can lead to increased strain on these muscles, making them more susceptible to trigger points.
  4. Trauma or injury: A direct impact, such as a fall or collision, can cause damage to the teres minor muscle, resulting in trigger points.
  5. Prolonged immobility: Keeping the arm in a fixed position for an extended period, such as using a sling or cast after an injury, can lead to muscle stiffness and the development of trigger points in the teres minor muscle.
  6. Inadequate warm-up or stretching: Engaging in physical activities without properly warming up or stretching the shoulder muscles can increase the risk of muscle strain and trigger point formation.
  7. Stress: Emotional stress can cause muscle tension throughout the body, including the teres minor muscle, which may result in trigger points.

Addressing the underlying cause of teres minor trigger points is crucial for effective treatment and prevention. Incorporating appropriate stretching, strengthening exercises, and maintaining good posture can help to alleviate and prevent trigger point formation in the teres minor muscle.

Sports that may cause Teres Minor Trigger Points

There are certain sports and activities where teres minor trigger points are more common due to the specific demands placed on the shoulder muscles, particularly those that involve repetitive overhead movements, forceful external rotation, or prolonged static positions. Some of these sports and activities include:

  1. Swimming: Frequent overhead movements in swimming strokes, such as the freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke, can place strain on the teres minor muscle and contribute to the development of trigger points. Triathletes are also at risk of developing shoulder pain from teres minor trigger points.
  2. Baseball and softball: The repetitive overhead throwing motion in these sports can cause excessive strain on the teres minor muscle, leading to trigger points.
  3. Tennis and badminton: Forceful overhead serves and smashes place significant stress on the shoulder muscles, including the teres minor, increasing the risk of trigger point formation.
  4. Weightlifting: Overhead lifts, such as the snatch or military press, can put excessive strain on the teres minor muscle, potentially leading to trigger points.
  5. Rock climbing: The prolonged static positions and forceful pulling movements required in rock climbing can strain the teres minor muscle, contributing to the development of trigger points.
  6. Volleyball: Overhead activities such as spiking, serving, and blocking can place considerable stress on the teres minor muscle and increase the likelihood of trigger point formation.
  7. Gymnastics: The extensive use of the upper body and overhead movements in gymnastics can lead to strain on the teres minor muscle and the development of trigger points.

Participants in these sports and activities should pay particular attention to shoulder conditioning, including teres minor stretching and strengthening exercises, to minimize the risk of developing trigger points. Additionally, proper warm-ups, cool-downs, and maintaining good posture and technique can further help prevent the formation of teres minor trigger points.

Teres Minor Trigger Point Pain Distribution in Other Shoulder Muscles

To better understand teres minor trigger points, it is helpful to compare their pain distribution to trigger points in other shoulder muscles:

  1. Supraspinatus trigger points: Pain is usually felt at the top and front of the shoulder and can extend down the lateral aspect of the arm, sometimes reaching the thumb and index finger.
  2. Infraspinatus trigger points: Pain is often experienced in the middle of the back of the shoulder, and can radiate to the front of the shoulder, the upper arm, and the forearm.
  3. Subscapularis trigger points: Pain is typically felt in the back of the shoulder blade, and may extend to the front of the shoulder and down the inner aspect of the arm.
Illustration showing shoulder rotator cuff disease illustration.

As you can see, the pain patterns for each muscle can be quite different, making it crucial to identify the specific muscle affected in order to apply the appropriate treatment.

Teres Minor Stretching and Rehab Exercises

When dealing with teres minor trigger points, it is essential to incorporate stretching and rehab exercises to improve mobility and alleviate pain. The following exercises can be beneficial:

  1. Teres Minor Stretch: Stand near a doorframe or wall with your elbow bent at a 90-degree angle. Place the back of your hand against the surface, and slowly rotate your body away from your arm until you feel a stretch in the back of your shoulder. Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds and repeat 3-5 times on each side.
  2. External Rotation with Resistance Band: Secure a resistance band to a stable object at waist level. Stand sideways to the anchor point, holding the free end of the band in your hand, with your elbow bent at a 90-degree angle and your upper arm close to your body. Slowly rotate your forearm outward, away from your body, keeping your elbow stationary. Hold for a moment, then return to the starting position. Perform 10-15 repetitions on each side, in 2-3 sets.
  3. Shoulder Retraction: Stand or sit with your back straight, arms by your side, and palms facing forward. Squeeze your shoulder blades together, pulling your shoulders back and down. Hold this position for 5-10 seconds and then release. Repeat 10-15 times in 2-3 sets.
  4. Scapular Stabilization: Assume a plank position on your forearms and toes, with your elbows directly below your shoulders. Engage your core and maintain a straight line from your head to your heels. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and hold the position for 5-10 seconds, then relax. Perform 5-10 repetitions in 2-3 sets.

Self-Myofascial Release with a Massage Ball

Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a technique that can be used to alleviate trigger point pain and improve muscle function. By applying gentle, sustained pressure to the affected area, you can help release tight muscle fibers and restore normal muscle function. A massage ball is an excellent tool for performing SMR on the teres minor muscle.

To perform SMR on the teres minor, follow these steps:

Locate the teres minor muscle, which is situated between the infraspinatus muscle and the edge of the shoulder blade.

Place the massage ball against the wall or on the floor, depending on your preferred position (standing or lying down). Position the ball against the teres minor muscle, ensuring you have targeted the right area.

Apply gentle pressure by leaning your body weight into the ball. The pressure should be firm but not unbearable.

Move slowly back and forth, allowing the ball to roll over the length of the teres minor muscle. Spend extra time on areas where you feel the most tension or discomfort.

Continue this process for 1-2 minutes, taking care not to overdo it, as excessive pressure can cause more harm than good. You may need to perform SMR several times a day for optimal results.


Understanding the anatomy and pain patterns associated with teres minor trigger points is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment. By incorporating stretching, rehab exercises, and self-myofascial release techniques, you can effectively manage and alleviate teres minor trigger point pain. As with any treatment, it is crucial to consult a medical professional to ensure you are performing these techniques correctly and safely.

By gaining knowledge about your body and the conditions that can cause discomfort, you empower yourself to take control of your well-being. Implementing the strategies discussed in this article can help you maintain a healthy, pain-free shoulder, and enjoy a better quality of life.





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